3. Cloning: making copies of an organism. Each copy gets DNA from only one parent.
4. Meiosis: how sex cells are formed in reproductive organs.The nucleus divides twice. Each cell has half the number
chromosomes as the original cell (23 in humans)
a) cell division
6. Sexual Reproduction: a new organism is produced from the DNA of two sex cells (egg and sperm)
10. Heredity: passing on of traits from parents to offspring
11. Genetics: study of how traits are passed from parent to offspring
Vocabulary to know
Things to know
(10x eyepiece x 10xobjective = 100x magnification)
a) Nucleus (controls the cell parts)
b) chromosome (holds the DNA. Determines traits)
c) cell wall (protects and supports plant cells)
d) cell membrane (holds the cell together. Let’s things in and out of the cell)
e) mitochondrion (makes energy from food)
f) vacuole (storage for food, water, waste)
g) chloroplast (makes the plant green)
h) cytoplasm (jelly-like substance where the organelles are)
2a. Ice wedging: freezing and thawing cause rocks to break apart2b. Plants and animals: roots make cracks in rocks. Animals burrowing in the ground can break up rocks.
3. Chemical weathering: when the chemical composition of the rock changes
3b. Plant acids: plant roots produce an acid (tannin) that reacts with rocks and weaken them
4. Soil: a mixture of weathered rock, organic matter (rotting plants and animals), water and air that supports the growth of plant life
5. Topography: surface features such as hills and plains - the shape of the earth’s surface
4. Folded Mountain : plates are squeezed together, making the rock layers fold, forming a mountain. (
7. Isostasy (I SAHS TUH SEE) : Equal forces pushing upward and downward on the lithosphere so it floats on the asthenosphere.
1. Lithosphere : crust and upper mantle. Divided into continental and oceanic plates.
2. Asthenosphere : lower mantle
3. Plates : big pieces of crust and upper mantle that hold the continents and oceans.
4. Plate boundaries : where the plates meet
5. Divergent boundaries : where the plates move apart. This often happens beneath the ocean. New crust is formed when the magma rises up at the break.
6. Convergent boundaries : where the plates move together. This can form mountains or volcanoes.
6a. Subduction : when one plate slides under another at a convergent boundary. The oceanic plate slides under the continental plate. Sometimes volcanoes are formed.
7. Transform boundaries : where the plates slide past each other. This can cause earthquakes.
8. Convection : the cycle of heating and cooling rock in the mantle.
1. crust - the rigid, rocky outer surface of the Earth, composed mostly of basalt (igneous) and granite (metamorphic). The crust is thinner under the oceans.
2. mantle - a rocky layer located under the crust - it is composed ofsilicon, oxygen, magnesium, iron, aluminum, and calcium. Convection (heat) currents carry heat from the hot inner mantle tothe cooler outer mantle.
4. inner core - the solid iron-nickel center of the Earth that is very hot and under great pressure.
1. Igneous rocks : rocks formed when lava or magma cools and solidifies.
1a. Extrusive igneous rocks : when lava cools and hardens. These rocks have small grains.
1b. Intrusive igneous rocks : when magma cools and hardens. These rocks have large grains.
2. Weathering and Erosion : wind, water, and ice break down rock into sediment and carry them to another place.
3. Sediments : pieces of broken rock, shells and other material.
4. Compaction and Cementation : Layers of sediments are buried and pushed together, forming sedimentary rock.
5. Sedimentary rock : rocks formed from layers of sediment.
5a. Detrital sedimentary rocks : made of grains from other rocks
5b. Chemical sedimentary rocks : made of minerals after water evaporates
5c. Organic sedimentary rocks : made of compressed dead plants and animals
6. Metamorphic rock : rocks changed by heat and pressure.
6a. Foliated metamorphic rocks : rocks that have been heated and
squeezed into layers.
6b. Non-foliated metamorphic rocks : rocks that have been
heated and Squeezed, but do not have layers.
7. Magma : melted rock inside the Earth
8. Lava : melted rock that is on the Earth's surface
1. Igneous : rocks formed by the cooling and hardening of hot liquid rock (magma or lava).
- May have crystals- May have pores (holes) from escaping gases- Usually has a solid- Formed from heat
- Has layers- Is grainy or sandy- May have other materials cemented in- Formed from pressure