• Genetics

    Posted by Tracy Buaron at 5/20/2012
    1. DNA: a chemical inside cells. Controls how an organism will look and act.
     
    2. Mitosis:cell division. DNA in the nucleus is duplicated. The nucleus divides into two nuclei that contain the same genetic information.

    3. Cloning: making copies of an organism. Each copy gets DNA from only one parent.

    4. Meiosis: how sex cells are formed in reproductive organs.The nucleus divides twice. Each cell has half the number

    chromosomes as the original cell (23 in humans)

    5. Asexual Reproduction: a new organism is produced from a part of another organism by mitosis

                       a) cell division

                       b) budding

                       c) regeneration

                       d) cloning

    6. Sexual Reproduction: a new organism is produced from the DNA of two sex cells (egg and sperm)

    7. Fertilization:process of sperm and eggs joining, resulting in a new organism
    8. Gene: small section of DNA on a chromosome that carries information about a trait
     
    9 Allele: one gene in a pair

    10. Heredity: passing on of traits from parents to offspring

    11. Genetics: study of how traits are passed from parent to offspring

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  • Cells and Cell Parts

    Posted by Mrs. Buaron at 4/6/2012

    Vocabulary to know

    1. Cell membrane – controls what enters and leaves the cell
    2. Chromosomes – found in the nucleus. Holds the DNA
    3. Organ – tissues working together (stomach, heart, liver…)
    4. Photosynthesis – makes food for a plant
    5. DNA – determines traits (color of hair, shape of nose…)
    6. Organ system – groups of organs working together (digestive system, circulatory system)
    7. Cell wall – helps support and protect plants
    8. Tissues – groups of cells working together

     

     Things to know

    1. Stem cells are long and tube shaped. They help move water through the plant.
    2. The microscope helps us to see cells closer.
    3. Magnification is eyepiece times the objective lens

    (10x eyepiece x 10xobjective = 100x magnification)

    1. Label each part of the plant and animal cell drawings with these organelle:

    a)      Nucleus (controls the cell parts)

    b)      chromosome (holds the DNA. Determines traits)

    c)      cell wall (protects and supports plant cells)

    d)     cell membrane (holds the cell together. Let’s things in and out of the cell)

    e)      mitochondrion (makes energy from food)

    f)       vacuole (storage for food, water, waste)

    g)      chloroplast (makes the plant green)

    h)      cytoplasm (jelly-like substance where the organelles are)

     
     plant cell
     
    animal  
     
     
     
     
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  • Microscope Parts

    Posted by Mrs. Buaron at 4/1/2012
    microscope parts
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  • Weathering

    Posted by TBuaron at 2/28/2010 2:00:00 PM


    1. Weathering: a process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces
     
    2. Mechanical weathering (AKA physical weathering): breaking down rocks into smaller pieces without changing them chemically. The small pieces are the same as the original rock.
    2a. Ice wedging: freezing and thawing cause rocks to break apart
     
    2b. Plants and animals: roots make cracks in rocks. Animals burrowing in the ground can break up rocks.

    3. Chemical weathering: when the chemical composition of the rock changes

    3a. Natural acids: some rocks react chemically with the acids in the air or soil

    3b. Plant acids: plant roots produce an acid (tannin) that reacts with rocks and weaken them                        

    3c. Effect of oxygen: some substances contain iron, which reacts with oxygen, causing rust (iron oxide)

    4. Soil: a mixture of weathered rock, organic matter (rotting plants and animals), water and air that supports the growth of plant life

    5. Topography: surface features such as hills and plains - the shape of the earth’s surface

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  • Mountains

    Posted by TBuaron at 2/10/2010 6:00:00 PM
     
    1. Erosion : the movement of sediment by wind, rain, and ice
     
     
    2. Fault : a crack in the earth's crust
     
     
    3.  Fault-block Mountain : mountain made of huge blocks of mountains that are separated by faults. (Example: Sierra Nevada in California
     

    4. Folded Mountain : plates are squeezed together, making the rock layers fold, forming a mountain. (Appalachian Mountains)


    5. Upwarped Mountain : Forces inside Earth push up the crust (Adirondack Mountains in NY and the Rocky Mountains in CO and NM)


    6. Volcanic Mountain : Magma from inside the earth reaches the surface. Now it is called lava. When the lava builds up layer by layer, it makes a volcanic mountain.


    7. Isostasy (I SAHS TUH SEE) : Equal forces pushing upward and downward on the lithosphere so it floats on the asthenosphere.

     

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  • Plate tectonics

    Posted by TBuaron at 1/31/2010 11:00:00 AM

    1. Lithosphere : crust and upper mantle. Divided into continental and oceanic plates.

     

    2. Asthenosphere : lower mantle

     

    3. Plates : big pieces of crust and upper mantle that hold the continents and oceans.

     

    4. Plate boundaries : where the plates meet

     

    5. Divergent boundaries : where the plates move apart. This often happens beneath the ocean. New crust is formed when the magma rises up at the break.

     

    6. Convergent boundaries : where the plates move together. This can form mountains or volcanoes.

     

    6a. Subduction : when one plate slides under another at a convergent boundary. The oceanic plate slides under the continental plate. Sometimes volcanoes are formed.


    7. Transform boundaries : where the plates slide past each other. This can cause earthquakes.

     

    8. Convection : the cycle of heating and cooling rock in the mantle.

     

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  • The Layers of the Earth

    Posted by TBuaron at 1/24/2010 1:15:00 PM

    1. crust - the rigid, rocky outer surface of the Earth, composed mostly of basalt (igneous) and granite (metamorphic). The crust is thinner under the oceans.

    2. mantle - a rocky layer located under the crust - it is composed ofsilicon, oxygen, magnesium, iron, aluminum, and calcium. Convection (heat) currents carry heat from the hot inner mantle tothe cooler outer mantle.

    3. outer core - the molten iron-nickel layer that surrounds the inner core.

    4. inner core - the solid iron-nickel center of the Earth that is very hot and under great pressure.

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  • The Rock Cycle - vocabulary

    Posted by TBuaron at 1/24/2010 11:05:00 AM

    1. Igneous rocks : rocks formed when lava or magma cools and solidifies.


              1a.  Extrusive igneous rocks : when lava cools and hardens. These rocks have small grains.

              1b.  Intrusive igneous rocks : when magma cools and hardens. These rocks have large grains.


    2.  Weathering and Erosion : wind, water, and ice break down rock into sediment and carry them to another place.


    3.  Sediments : pieces of broken rock, shells and other material.


    4.  Compaction and Cementation :  Layers of sediments are buried and pushed together, forming sedimentary rock.


    5.  Sedimentary rock : rocks formed from layers of sediment.


            5a.  Detrital sedimentary rocks : made of grains from other rocks


    5b.  Chemical sedimentary rocks :  made of minerals after water evaporates


             5c.  Organic sedimentary rocks :  made of compressed dead plants and animals


    6.  Metamorphic rock :  rocks changed by heat and pressure.


             6a.  Foliated metamorphic rocks : rocks that have been heated and

    squeezed into layers.


              6b.  Non-foliated metamorphic rocks : rocks that have been

    heated and Squeezed, but do not have layers.


    7.  Magma :  melted rock inside the Earth


    8. Lava : melted rock that is on the Earth's surface

     

     

     

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  • Types of Rocks

    Posted by TBuaron at 1/10/2010 8:00:00 PM

    1. Igneous : rocks formed by the cooling and hardening of hot liquid rock (magma or lava).

    - May have crystals
    - May have pores (holes) from escaping gases
    - Usually has a solid
    - Formed from heat
    2. Sedimentary : rocks formed from sediments that have been pressed  and cemented together.
    - Has layers
    - Is grainy or sandy
    - May have other materials cemented in
    - Formed from pressure
    3. Metamorphic : rocks formed when sedimentary or igneous rocks are changed by HEAT and PRESSURE OR CHEMICAL REACTION.
     
    - Combination of layers and crystals
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  • Matter Vocabulary

    Posted by Tracy Buaron at 12/19/2009
    Click on this link --> Vocabulary Unit 2
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Last Modified on September 17, 2012